The founder of Nafplion (=sea city) is said to be the mythical hero of the same name, father of Palamedes. Nafplio played an important role in all phases of Greek History, from the mythical years to the present day. Especially during the years of the Greek Revolution, it emerged as a pan-Hellenic center and became the capital of the reborn Greece. During the Middle Ages it experienced the rule of the Byzantines, the Venetians and the Franks. The former built the newer walls of Akronaflia on the traces of the "Cyclope" fortification, while the westerners are responsible for the completion of the works and the addition of the castles at Palamidi and Bourtzi.
The city, with its powerful Venetian fortresses and aristocratic tradition, has long been the heart of Hellenism. For almost the entire 18th century, the city lived under Ottoman rule. On November 29, 1822, Staikos Staikopoulos liberated Nafplio from the Turks, occupying the forts, and on December 3 of the same year, the Turks handed it over to Theodoros Kolokotronis.
City symbol. The small fortress on the islet of Agios Theodoros. Bourtzi, like many other buildings in Nafplion, was built by the Venetians between 1471 and according to others in 1473. It consists of a tall octagonal tower, flanked by low semicircular cannon towers to its east and west. A movable chain blocked the entrance to the bay and Porto Cadena - the Port of the Chain - was turned into a safe anchorage. While the Turks had thrown stones around the islet, to prevent the approach of large ships, and had built a jetty from Burji to the point called Pentadelfia with an opening in the middle. Later it became a place of residence for the executioners of the death row prisoners of Palamidi. After the liberation from the Ottomans, it will be the place of accommodation for the Greek government.
The idea to fortify Palamidi was successively conceived by Morosini, Corner and Grimani. The plans were finally made by Grimani, but the work was completed shortly after by Agostino Sagredo. The whole complex consists of eight bastions connected by walls and communicating with each other. The fort was connected to the city by two roads, one was vaulted covered with an arched roof and replaced later by a stepped ascent with 857 steps. The fortification works of Palamidi were finished within three years (1711-1714). It was the last major achievement in the long history of Venetian rule. A year later, in 1715, the Turks with an army of 100,000 entered the Peloponnese and captured Palamidi and Akronafplia. Palamidi was used from time to time as a prison for infamous convicts.
Afterwards, Nafplion was designated the capital of the small free Greek state (until 1834) and seat of the first king.
1828: On January 8, the first Governor, Ioannis Kapodistrias, arrives.
1831: On September 27, Kapodistrias is murdered outside the Church of Agios Spyridon.
1833: Arrival of Otto.
1834 Theodoros Kolokotronis is imprisoned in Palamidi.
1862: On February 1, Nafplion revolts against the reign of Otto


The history of Argos is linked to all eras of human history, from the early days of the Neolithic era to Christianity. It has been continuously inhabited for 6,000 years and despite the destruction it has suffered over the years, it has always been built in the same privileged position. At the time when man gathers in societies, Argos is inhabited by the Pelasgian tribe. First at the time, they founded the first colonies throughout Greece and admired the vastness of the sky, the fertility of the earth and the power of the sun.
The founder of Argos is said to be Inachos, who built and fortified the Acropolis of Larissa. Then Phoroneas ruled. In 1900 BC Argos was called "Foronic Asti" and was the first city in Europe to be founded. Pausanias presents Phoroneus as a great benefactor of mankind.
Then Danaos, son of Ios and grandson of Inachus, ascends to power. He developed shipping, industry and trade, abolished human sacrifice at the altars and ruled the place democratically. A wolf fell upon a herd of oxen and devoured the bull, leader of the herd. This incident gave the idea to the committee of the Municipality to liken Gelanoras to the bull and Danaos to the wolf, because this animal does not live among the people, just as Danaos did not live with the Argives until then and thus give the power to Danaus. Danaos, in honor of the wolf, built the Temple of Lyceum Apollo in the market.
The Wolf signified the omnipotence of the city and was later depicted on Argive coins. Even to this day it is the official symbol of the Municipality of Argos.
Danaos was succeeded by other rulers. Among them Acrisios, who had a daughter Danae. Since he had no male child as a successor, he asked the oracle who would succeed him in power. The oracle gave an oracle that Danae's son will take power after she kills him. Fearing the oracle, Acrisios imprisons Danae in a bronze chamber and condemns her to eternal chastity. Zeus then, is possessed by the beauty of Danae. He enters the prison "like a shower of gold" and from their contact Perseus is born. Acrisios, horrified, put them in a boat and left them in the sea. The waves drove the boat to Serifos. There the brothers Diktis and Polydektis took care of them. Andromeda became his wife and together they had their son, Persis. Perseus returns to find his grandfather and, according to the oracle, becomes his killer. One day while practicing with the discus, he fatally hit Acrisios, while he was standing at the point where the discus was falling and kills him by a fatal coincidence...
Pheidonas reigns in the last decades of the 7th century BC. Argos in his days reached its greatest glory. He possessed a free democratic spirit and declared an opposite policy to Sparta, as a result of which the citizens had equal rights and privileges. Pheidon extended the sovereignty of Argos in the wider region and his control reached as far as Aegina, where at that time it was the first naval power of Greece, with which he maintained an alliance. There he established a mint and was the first to mint coins in Greece. Until then transactions were done with iron rods, the arrows.
The Phaedonian coin was replaced about 2 centuries later by the Attic coin.
After the Theban war and the campaign of Alexander the Great, the Argos-Rome alliance follows. Argos until 396 AD is under Roman occupation. The Roman emperors treated Argos in the best way. Argos became the seat of the Argolic Congress, flourishing economically and culturally. Nero attempts to drain Lake Lerna to rid the world of malaria, and Hadrian builds the famous Hadrian's Aqueduct, which runs from Mount Lyrkeio to Argos. Julian, admiring the ancient glory of the city, calls for the lifting of unjust taxation.
Argos experienced many disasters from the Heruls, the Goths and the Ostrogoths, the Slavs.
Christianity was proclaimed by Apostle Andrew. At the end of the 9th c. AD, Agios Petros is named Bishop of Argos, patron of the city to this day. In 1189, Argos is elevated to a Metropolis. In the 13th century is in the hands of the Greek protectors. Frankish rule (1212 - 1383), First Venetian rule (1383 - 1463), First Ottoman rule (1463 - 1686), Second Venetian rule (1686 - 1715), Second Ottoman rule (1715 - 1821).
On March 23, 1821, Argos raised the flag of the Revolution under Stamatelos Antonopoulos. On April 24, Kehayabeis invades and on May 9, the city is liberated. On December 1, 1821, the First National Assembly takes place in the Holy Church of the Holy Forerunner. From June 3, 1822 to July 5, 1822, Argos became the seat of the government and the Parliament of the Hellenes.
On July 11, 1829, the 4th National Assembly takes place in the Ancient Theater on December 5, 1831, the 5th National Assembly in the Kapodistrian School.
In 1833, the current City Hall, the First Primary School, the Government Palace (Kallerion) were built by Ioannis Kapodistrias, as well as the houses of S. Trikoupis, generals Thomas Gordon and Dimitrios Tsokris, as well as the Barracks were remodeled, with the addition of a new building in Ippkou Barracks.
In 1889, the Neoclassical Municipal Market and a number of neoclassical buildings were built. On April 27, 1941, the Germans occupied the city and left on September 14, 1941. Argos continues to evolve and develop its cultural heritage.


Here, in December 1821, the first National Assembly of the Greeks, of the newly liberated Greek state, took place. In this assembly, blue and white was defined as the color of the Greek flag and the Constitution of Epidaurus was drawn up, one of the most progressive of its time.
Epidaurus was already famous from pre-Homeric times, which is why Phlegyas, the greatest warlord of his time, visited it, thus to get to know the place, in essence spying, with the ultimate goal of his predatory raids. He was accompanied by his daughter Koronida, who bore fruit from her love affair with the god Apollo. She managed to keep her pregnancy from being noticed by her father and when she gave birth she abandoned the baby on a mountain in Epidaurus, Mount Titthio. There a goat found it and fed it, while the herd dog guarded it. Aresthanas, the shepherd, noticing that a goat was missing and that the dog was breaking away from the herd every now and then, discovered the little Asclepius.
During the period of the descent of the Dorians, Pityreus, a descendant of Iona, is mentioned, who handed over the city to the Argive Deiphontes who was succeeded by Epidaurus, from whom the area takes its name. Elsewhere it is stated that Epidaurus predated Pityreus. However, Homer mentions the participation of the Epidaurians in the Trojan War led by the son of Asclepius, Mahaon, physician of the Achaeans. During the 7th BC century, Procles is mentioned as the tyrant of Epidaurus, while later the city was subordinated to the tyrant of Corinth, Periandros, until the fall of the Cypselids, when it regained its independence. He participated in the Median wars while being a loyal ally of Sparta.


Homer in his references, among others, in the Iliad mentions her participation in the Trojan War. It flourished from the 5th century BC. In addition to agriculture, shipbuilding and fishing, the wealth of a unique type of shell, the porphyra, contributed to its emergence as an important city in antiquity. The Hermiones, with a special processing of this, produced the purple (red color) used by the kings, among them Alexander the Great, as a dye for their tunics. Confirmation of its wealth are the finds of silver and bronze coins depicting the view of Demeter's agriculture, dating back to 550 BC. Its prosperity is confirmed by the existence of many musical teachers, among them the great dithyrambist Lasos, teacher of Pindar.
During the years of the Roman era, it flourished. The aqueduct is perfected, which transported the water to scattered cisterns carved into the rock and irrigated the entire then numerous state. The traveler Pausanias, who visited it in the 2nd AD. century, describes with admiration the rich temples, the celebrations, the musical and swimming competitions that gave her a special splendor. Continuing her course in history, Hermione has to present examples of Byzantine dominance and development.
On the S. Eastern side of the current City Hall, a large early Christian Triklitos Royal Church was discovered, with great mosaic floors, which points to the existence of early Christian worship and its prevalence throughout the area. Fortified with walls built on the remains of ancient buildings, Ermioni appears during the Frankish period and takes the name "Kastri". After strong resistance it falls into the hands of the Turks. It survives the Turkish occupation thanks to its strong shipping and participates with a considerable body of Ermionites in many battles of the liberation struggle. In every historical moment, Hermione made her presence felt, reaching our days, carrying her heritage intact and maintaining her authenticity.

Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou