Chios is the island where the historical past meets the present.

3000 BC In the cave at Agios Galas (in the north-west of the island), Neolithic findings dating back to 3000 BC were discovered.

2600-2000 BC Proto-Hellenic finds dating around 2600-2000 BC. were found in the southern part of the island, in the Emporios area. These finds can be found today at the Archaeological Museum of Chios.

1600-1100 BC An ancient settlement was discovered on the south side of the island, in the area of ​​Fani, which is believed to be a remnant of the Mycenaean Era. The first king witnessed on the island is Amphiklos or Amphialos, who came to the island following an oracle. The Ionians of Asia Minor then inhabited Samos and Chios and thus united the island with Panionio. During the 7th BC century Chios prospers not only in the shipping industry but in all areas of life.

It is said that Homer had passed through Chios and that the Homeric epics have been inspired by this place. Chios, in contrast to other regions, did not create colonies but markets, i.e. trading posts at various hubs where it promoted its products and especially its famous wine and mastic.

600 BC It is worth mentioning that around 600 BC the Great Clause (legislative system) was implemented in Chios, with the first known elements of Democracy. It is even said that Solon was inspired by the Great Clause.

493 BC The Chiots resisted Persian imperialism but finally the Persians captured the island in 493 BC. Chios sided with the Athenians in the Athenian Alliance. Years of prosperity for the island followed.

431 BC-146 BC The Peloponnesian War found the Chiots fighting on the side of the Athenians until their destruction in Sicily, when they turned to the side of the Spartans. After the signing of the Peace of Andalkide, Chios allies again with the Athenians. During the years of Alexander the Great, there was a Macedonian garrison in Chios. After the death of Alexander the Great, his successors followed and a period of decline began for the island.

146 BC Subsequently, the Chiots allied themselves with the Romans, initially enjoying some privileges.

250 AD Around 250 AD during the period of persecution of the Christians, Saint Isidoros was martyred on the island.

A tradition says that the mastic tree (Schoinos in Chia dialect) began to weep upon seeing the body of the Saint that had been dragged there. The mastic tree is also called "blessed tree".

650 AD Arab invasions

1042-1055 AD In the 11th century AD they started the construction of the Castle of Chios, with the aim of fortifying the island.

In 1042 AD, the Emperor Con/nos Monomachos started the construction of the New Monastery, keeping the promise he had given to the three monks who had found the icon of the Virgin in the place where the monastery is today.

1089 AD Raid by Turkish pirates.

1124-5 AD Invasion of the Venetians.

1170-71 AD Second invasion by the Venetians.

1204 AD The Franks threaten the island in 1204.

1261 AD The Genoese show increasing interest in the island as a trading post and gradually begin to gain privileges on the island as they help the Byzantines deal with the threat of the Venetians.

1292 AD Invasion of Sicily.

1300 AD Invasion of the Turks.

1303 AD Invasion of the Catalans. The Genoese increased their influence on the island and when the Byzantines could no longer defend the island from the Turks, they settled on the island in 1307.

1307-1329 AD In 1329 the Byzantines returned to the island and in 1346 the Genoese reconquered the island where they settled for two centuries.

1346 - 1566 AD Chios prospered during the period of the Genoese rule. The trade is organized by Maona, a Genoese trading company, and the conquerors, although they oppressed the locals, manage to organize the trade of mastic and the rest of the products of Chios, they introduce to the island the cultivation of citrus fruits and silkworms. In the southern part of the island, Kastrochoria are created to protect mastic production and mansions are built in the area of ​​Kampos. The population is growing and the standard of living is very high. The Genoese managed to keep the Turks away from Chios.

1566 - 1821 AD However, the Turks conquer the island in 1566. The Chiots continue to be oppressed by the conqueror but retain more privileges than any other place due to the privileges granted to them thanks to the production of mastic. When the Greek Revolution broke out in 1821, the Chiots did not take part.

1822 AD The next year, the Samiot rebel Lykourgos Logothetis arrives in Chios and with the help of Antonis Bournias, tries to free the island from the Turks but without success. Kapudan Pasha Kara Ali brings the Turkish fleet to the island and burns, destroys and slaughters the inhabitants of Chios, thus setting them an example for their indiscipline and ignorance. It is estimated that over 25,000 people lost their lives in the Chios Massacre, as it is called. Later that year, Psarian Konstantinos Kanaris set fire to the Turkish flagship in the port of Chios. Kapudan Pasha Kara Ali, like other Turkish officials, died and were buried in the Turkish cemetery located in the Castle of Chios.

1823 - 1912 AD The Chiots who managed to escape from the Turks return to the island in 1832 in an attempt to rebuild their lives from scratch. The frost of 1852 that destroyed the harvest as well as the devastating earthquake of 1881 that claimed the lives of 3,500 people made the situation even more difficult.

However, the Chiots did not give up the effort and in 1912 the island was liberated and united with the rest of Greece.

1939 - 1945 AD During World War II, the Chios fought against the Germans and helped many people escape to the Middle East.

The island was liberated along with the rest of Greece in 1944.

Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou