The area has been known since the time of the Trojan War as the residence of the Paeons with Amydona (Axiochori) as their capital. The Paeons participated in the Trojan War with King Pyraihims and Asteropaios. In the eastern part of the region lived the Christones in cities such as Ioron (Palatian) and Klitai (Xylokeratia). In the 12th BC h. the region of Paionia was inhabited by Cretans, who were called Vottians, after the settler Vottonas. Then the cities of Atalanti (Axioupoli), Gortyna (Gorgopi) and Idomeni were founded. The Phrygian raiders settled in the area at the beginning of the Archaic era and founded Vairo (Castle) and Bragyles (Metallic). In classical times, the area was part of the Macedonian Kingdom. Important Greek cities such as Morria Yli (Ano Apostoloi), Kallindoia and Europos are founded. In the Roman era (1st AD c. ) Callicum (or Gallicum), the current city of Kilkis - where there was gold from the river Echedoros (Gallikos) - and the city of Tauriana (Polykastro) are founded. With the establishment of the Bulgarian state in the 10th century, Kilkis was destroyed by the conquerors and the inhabitants migrated to southern Italy. After 1014, with the destruction of the Bulgarian army by the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, the city was rebuilt. In the 14th century, the area, which belonged to Byzantine landowners, was referred to as the "Gallikos estate". During the Turkish rule, the city was known as Kilkisi and from the 15th century it gained political stability and flourished in the field of silk and weaving. At the beginning of the 17th century, it belonged to the estate of Yuruk Hasan Aga, while around 1765 it was incorporated into Abdul Aga's farm by the family of landowners Habenderoglou of Doirani. In 1780, the area was given by the Gate, to Yusuf Bey of the Evrenos family.

The Kilkisians participate in the Revolution of ΄21 led by Zafeirios Stamatiadis from Idomeni as well as in the Macedonian Struggle (1904-1908) with the Macedonian fighters Mich. Sionidis, I. Ramnali, G. Doitsini and others. Finally, the prefecture is liberated in 1913 (Balkan War II) after the glorious three-day battle of Lachanas (June 19-21). This was followed by population exchanges with Bulgaria (1919) and Turkey (1923) and the settlement of refugees from Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor, Cappadocia and Pontus. During World War II, the area experienced German occupation and the Greek Civil War.

Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou