Today, Salamis spreads out in a historic and beloved place for those who knew it and live there. Ampelakia is 4 km, S.E. from the capital. Here was the port of ancient Salamis, at the bottom of which, there are ruins of ancient buildings. From the ancient harbor and cape of Kynosoura, the visitor will see the Tomb of the Salaminomachians of the historic Salamis of 480 BC. The place became a welcoming embrace and inspiration for the stage philosopher, Euripides, but also the last stop for Karaiskakis and other fighters of 1821.
Homeland of Homer's Aedas and the great tragedian Euripides, place of residence and creation of the poet Angelos Sikelianos and hospitality of Georgios Karaiskakis, Salamis is more widely known in world history for the greatest Naval Battle of the centuries, which took place in its straits in 480 BC. From the outcome of which, with the victory of the Greeks, Greek civilization was saved and developed and spread to the West and the world.
According to mythology, the name Salamis was given to the island by Cychrea, to honor his mother Salamis who was the sister of Aegina and one of the 50 daughters of the river god Aesop. In ancient times Salamis was known by the names Pityoussa ( from the pitis tree: pine), Skiras (from the hero Skiros) and Kychreia (from Kychrea). The island has also been known since ancient times under the name Koulouri, which comes from the cape "Kolouris akra" (today Pounta), on which the ancient city and the port of the 4th century BC were built. Mythology - History:
The island was ruled by the river Asopos, after killing the island's first king, Ofis. His daughter, Salamina, was madly in love with the god of the sea, Poseidon. The fruit of this love was Cychreas (half man, half snake) who reigned on the island. Cychreas had a daughter, Glauki, who married Telamon, son of King Aeacus of Aegina. Telamonas, who succeeded Cychreas on the throne, later had two sons: Aedas (from his marriage with Perivoia, daughter of the king of Megara Alcathos) and Teucros (from his marriage with Isioni). The two brothers took part in the Trojan War with 12 ships. The king of the island at that time was Ayantas, who is described as one of the bravest Greeks. But his end was tragic. he killed himself when he was defeated by Odysseus in the contests held with the weapons of the dead Achilles as a prize. After the end of the war, Tevkros returned to the island with Eurysakis, son of Aedas and Tekmisa. Teukros faced the wrath of Telamon's father for not avenging his brother's death. So he left the island and went to Cyprus, where he founded a city called Salamis, while Eurysakis reigned on the island and had a son, Philaeus, who became an Athenian citizen and donated Salamis to the Athenians.
For centuries after, Salamis was the... "apple of contention" between Athens and Megara. At one time Salamis was in the possession of the Megareans. After the intervention of Solon, Salamis came under the control of the Athenians.
During the Persian wars, Salamis offered invaluable help to the Athenians and their allies against the Persians, and was particularly famous in history for the great naval battle that took place in its straits in 480 BC. In Salamis, during the period of the naval battle, the three greatest poets of the centuries meet. Aeschylus fought in the naval battle and wrote about it. The teenage Sophocles took part in the Epinicia, while the most tragic of the three, Euripides, was born in Salamis when the great historical event was taking place.
From excavations that began in 1994 with the professor-archaeologist Giannos Lolo, archaeological finds were discovered in the cave, where Euripides, according to historical sources, wrote his immortal works. On the path leading to the cave, the sanctuary of Dionysus was discovered. Also in recent excavations in the south of the island, in the area of Kanakia, ruins and foundations of buildings of Homeric Salamis were found.
In its later history, Salamis received various raids from time to time, such as those of the Macedonians, the Peloponnesians, etc. In between there were boom and bust periods. From 350 to 318 BC Salamis was given the possibility to mint its own currency. Byzantine naydria and tombs bear witness to the existence of an intense life on the island, which, however, was also threatened by the Venetians, pirates, etc. During the years of the Turkish occupation, due to its location and security, it contributed positively to the games, while at the same time enjoying certain privileges.
It was a refuge for refugees (such as Athenians in 1687 and residents of Attica and Boeotia in 1770 and 1821). This is where the phrase came from: "my soul went to Koulouri".
He took part in the spells led by Mitromara, who left his tama sword to Faneromeni. Later, a group of Friends was created with the first abbot of I.M. Panagia Faneromeni, Grigorio Kanellos who initiated the brothers Anagnosti and Antonis Virvilis. In the revolution of 1821 they took an active part led by Georgakis Glistis as well as Georgakis Mathesi, Ioannis Kritsikis, Anagnosti Virvilis, Anagnosti Karnesi, Ioannis Vienna, etc. The help that I.M. Faneromenis offered to the Race was very big and important. in 1823 the Executive and Parliamentary bodies of the Provisional Administration of the revolutionary Greece were installed, while in 1824 the printing house was moved where the first sheet of the "Newspaper of Athens" was published by G. Psyllas. Also, all the fighters of the ' 21 who took part in the operations of Attica, Athens and Faliro such as: Makrygiannis, Tzavelas, Kriezotis, D. Ypsilantis, Mavrovouniotis and others. He was also hosted by G. Karaiskakis, whose elite body was Salaminian Agonists. Karaiskakis was buried in the church of Agios Dimitrios, which was also his wish, in 1827. In 1996, his tomb was reconstructed and his bust was erected in the precincts of the church. In 1830 Kapodistrias founded the old 1st Primary School, which operated until 1981. Today it houses the archaeological museum. Karaiskakis was buried in the church of Agios Dimitrios, which was also his wish, in 1827. In 1996, his tomb was reconstructed and his bust was erected in the precincts of the church. In 1830 Kapodistrias founded the old 1st Primary School, which operated until 1981. Today it houses the archaeological museum. Karaiskakis was buried in the church of Agios Dimitrios, which was also his wish, in 1827. In 1996, his tomb was reconstructed and his bust was erected in the precincts of the church. In 1830 Kapodistrias founded the old 1st Primary School, which operated until 1981. Today it houses the archaeological museum.
After the end of the revolution, the island experienced flourishing days for maritime professions. An important event for Salamina was the installation on the island of the Naval Station in 1878, in Faneromeni and from 1881 in its current location. This era gave birth to and highlighted notable personalities, such as the great painter Polychroni Lebesi, the philologist-folklorist Petros Fourikis, the general Theodoros Pagalos, the playwright Dimitris Bogris and later the bard of folk songs Giorgos Papasideris, the professor-archaeologist Dimitris Pallas, the head of the Armed Forces Spyros Augeris et al. During the German occupation she again sacrificed her lads - in the resistance against the occupiers - such as George. Begni, N.Beri, Phil. Tutsi, St. Nicoleto, George. Elefsiniotis, etc., as well as hostages in German camps.
It is useful to know that the First Meridian, according to the geographical system of the ancient mathematician, astronomer and geodist Eratosthenes of Cyrene, passes through the ancient city of Salamis of the classical times, i.e. today's Ampelakia. It is also known, among all the tribes of the world, that they sank in the surrounding sea area, during the Naval Battle of 480 BC. the ships of the eastern despotism are adrift. At the same time, the development of shipping during the first decades of the 20th century is another brilliant period of prosperity for the place. The masts of the sailing ships formed a forest, the sailors returned from their voyages.
After the Greek foot soldiers at Marathon (490 BC) and Thermopylae (480 BC) followed the naval soldiers at Salamis. On the 13th of the Attic month Boedromion, the first year of the 75th Olympiad, during the reign of the Athenian lord Kalliades (September 28, 480 BC) the free Greek citizens resisted the clothed but unfree Persian despotism, body, soul and spirit .The Persian fleet sails past the coasts of Attica and enters the straits of Salamis thinking that it is surprising the Greeks, who from their safe anchorage in the port of Ampelakia (ancient Salamis) open to the sea and line up in a fixed order by cities ready for a naval battle.
The Salaminomachus and master of the theater, Aeschylus, provides in the tragedy of "Perses" the most beautiful written monument to the Naval Battle. A messenger announces to the queen, Atossa, the destruction of the Persian power, represented to him by the poet as a consequence of "that original sin, which the Greek calls Hybrin." The man who oversteps the boundaries set for him shakes the order of the world and must fall victim to his own blindness. Thus the Persian state also exceeded the measure assigned to it. The hubris of this campaign found at Salamis the first part of retribution, and Plataea will be the second.' A.L.
In a scene of unique grandeur, the messenger brings to the palaces of the Persian king the horrible news of the destruction of the Persian fleet. "States of all Asia! Persian land, harbor of so much wealth, with one blow only our wretched happiness goes to ruin and the Persian wreckage the flower is lost. It is bad to be the first to bring news of calamity. But it is necessary to describe in detail what happened to us. All the Persian army down there perished! The shores of Salamis and the surrounding places are filled with dead and horribly lost....If it was only the crowd, then the Persians would have won the victory. Because all of the three hundred Greeks had ships and besides these, ten more that stood out. On the other hand, Xerxes was driving a thousand and another two hundred and seven, at a speed incomparable. So that was the analogy. Do not think so that we have lost the battle because of this: No, but thus some God destroyed our army, from parting the scale weighing, with unequal fortune. Gods save the city of Pallas.
The cause of the death was malicious evil, a spirit or some angry demon, who suddenly, no one knows how, revealed himself.
When the day, bathed in light, covered the whole world with its white rays, then from the side of the Greeks, first, like a song, a joyful sound was heard coming out, which roared around the rocks of the island... and the barbarians... fear seized them all, when they saw how they were deceived. Because it was not for flight that the Greeks sang a modest paean, but because they rushed into battle with their heart and line weakened, the trumpet's echo blazed all the way. And immediately the oars at their command with a splashing rhythm beat the deep wave and all face us quickly project. The right horn came first in orderly order, the other fleet followed behind and a melodious cry resounded: Forward, children of the Greeks, liberate the country, children and women, the sanctuaries of the Gods, the tombs of the ancestors.
"They immediately beat their bronze rigging to the other ship. A Greek ship started first and crushed a Phoenician's stern, side and handrails. Then everyone turns their bows against each other. At first the line of the Persian fleet held firm. But when the multitude of ships gathered in the strait within, there was no way to meet one another, and the brazen prows collided and broke their oars, while all around the ships of the Greeks with great skill and speed from all sides struck and turned backwards and forwards. draft. Until in a little while you could no longer see the sea full of shipwrecks and the bodies of the slain, and all around the shores and drylands were tingly with corpses. Then, as many ships as were still left, without order, threw themselves into flight, scuttling fast. And they seem to they fish for fish in the net, with pieces of oars or wreckage of shipwrecks they weigh down, they break backs and a wail and a wail filled the plain of the sea. Until the darkness of the black night fell and all was over.
Of the calamity of the multitude not ten days, even if I had been in line, I could not recount the whole, for you never know in a single day, so many did not perish until now... Those of the Persians were manly with fearless souls noble-born and always first of all for the faith they had in the king, they perished with a horrible and shameful death. Xerxes let out a great groan, seeing the depth of the ruin. Because he was sitting high up in a place near the seashore and he was watching his army. And after he tore his veils, lamenting with charming cries, he suddenly commands his land army and rushes in disorderly flight."
Source: Municipality of Salamina