The names of Amorgos in ancient times were Pangali, Psychia, Karkisia and Melania. Important historical finds that have been found testify that the island was first inhabited during the 5th millennium. During the Proto-Cycladic era, Amorgos was one of the most important centers of the Aegean. Fortified citadels on hills - the main one being Markiani - and on capes, cemeteries (Dokathismata, Kapsala), marble sculpture and sculpture and the spread of metalwork and navigation testify to the prosperity of the island. Amorgos contributed significantly to the spread and prevalence of the culture of copper processing in the wider Aegean area. The rise of the Minoan civilization affects Amorgos during the Middle Cycladic period (2000-1600 BC) and transforms it into a trading post in the context of the Minoan sea rule (1600-1450 BC).
Later, Amorgos was inhabited by Milesians of Minorasia and Naxians and actively participated in the First Athenian Alliance. In that period, the three powerful cities were founded: Arkesini, Minoa and Aegiali. These cities functioned as a Commonwealth in the 4th century BC and mainly developed shipping, crafts and trade. Indicative is the sale of Amorginian tunics in the large markets of that time.
In 337 BC occupied by the Macedonians, while in 322 BC the naval battle of Amorgos takes place between the Macedonian troops and the generals of Athens, where the latter are finally crushed.
Between the 3rd and 2nd centuries the island passed through the hands of the Macedonians, the Ptolemies, the Samians, the Rhodians and the Romans. The cults of the Hellenistic times prevail on the island, while in the 4th century AD the phenomenon of Christianization of the ancient places of worship begins.
The raids of the Saracen pirates force the inhabitants to fortify themselves in the Castle, Kastri and the 23 towers of the island. During the period of Iconoclasm, the Miraculous Icon of Panagia Chozoviotissa arrives from Palestine and the Byzantine Emperor Alexios II Komnenos establishes in 1088 the most important monument of the Byzantine era on the island, the Monastery of Panagia Chozobiotissa. Many architectural samples from the Venetian era have been found on the island. Some of them are the tower of Gavras, Kato Lakkos and the paved Lozes.
Amorgos actively participates in the Revolution of 1821 with its naval power, while after the assumption of governance by Kapodistrias, as part of the program of organization and upgrading of Education, a co-educational school is established on the island, one of the first Greek schools of free Greece.
After the Second World War, the population of the island decreased due to the internal and external migration of Amorgians. Thus, during the Metaxas dictatorship (1930s), the island was a place of exile. During the period of the "Occupation", Amorgos initially joined the Italian administration in 1941, while after Italy's capitulation in 1943, the island lived under German occupation until its liberation in 1944.
The last 20 years have seen a rapid development of tourism.
Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou