Important data are brought to light by the archaeological finds that were discovered in the area of Alonissos and testify to the strategic position and the decisive role of the island from the prehistoric period onwards. The identification, at the same time, of one of the two cities that flourished in ancient Ikos, the philological tradition that mentions that Peleus, father of Achilles, was buried on the island, the admission that the specific island was a passage of the Argonautic expedition, in connection with the important findings brought to light by years of scientific research, are evidence of the important position Alonissos holds on the national archaeological map.
In the old town of Alonissos, where the second city of the island is located, there are traces of habitation from classical times until today, while at the same time a fortified settlement was located at the location "Kastraki" and in the area "Raches".
In recent surface surveys on the mountain plateaus of Alonissos, a large number of agricultural facilities, periodically or opportunistically inhabited, dating from the classical and Hellenistic eras have been identified. The agricultural facilities have been identified in the locations of "Garbitses", "Tsoukalia", "Kalamaki" and "Koumaros" in Alonissos. At some sites there are many surface finds such as architectural elements, pottery and coins that bear witness to the timeless human presence spanning from Roman and medieval times to the modern period.
The rural character of the sites is evidenced by abundant pottery, stone tools for processing cereals, and stone wine and oil production facilities. Some of the individual agricultural installations show many features in common with the fortified farmhouses of the 4th century BC, which have been found in mainland and insular Greece.
In the sea area between Peristera, Alonissos and Kyra-Panagia, at least ten shipwrecks dating from the 5th century BC to the 12th AD have been identified. century and reinforce the belief that the island of Alonissos has been a sea passage since ancient times.
However, important data also emerges from the excavations in the Cave of Cyclops, in Giura, on the south side of the rocky island, the rich embankments of the aceramic or Mesolithic era inform us that man from 8600 BC to 4000 BC. as well as during historical times, it used the cave which is considered to be the oldest human settlement on an Aegean island. The most important find, the finely crafted pottery with geometric decoration, from the middle Neolithic period (5800 - 5300 BC).
Finally, on the island of Skandzoura, the ancient "Skandira" at the site of Kouroupi, a fortified settlement of a Hellenistic city has been identified, while in the countryside, around the old monastery, there are traces of agricultural facilities from historical times.
The same human activity in prehistoric and historical times is attested on all the islets of the archipelago. On the islet of Psathura, tools from the Middle Paleolithic period were found and a Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement has been identified.
Findings have also been found on the islets of Pappus, Gramiza, Korakas.
Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou