The Prehistoric Settlement of Archontiko Giannitsa comes to enrich the hitherto fragmentary picture we had of Macedonian prehistory.
The settlement is located south of Archontiko, between ancient Pella and Giannitsa, while it is 4 km from each of these two cities. It has the form of a bank-bank with a height of approximately 20 m and an area of 128 acres.
The position dominates the area and moreover it was not far from the coastline of Thermaikos. After all, the relationship of the settlement with the sea is also confirmed by the finding of a large number of sea oysters of the type Cerastoderma edule, which were used for their diet by the prehistoric inhabitants of the settlement.
The excavations brought to light successive phases of a settlement dating to the end of the Early Bronze Age and the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age.
Through the radio dating of findings, the date of 2,300-1900 BC for the main phases of the settlement emerged.
The oldest phase of the settlement was located on the E. slope of the tomba. The houses were stilts and the walls were formed from piled clay, reeds and branches, traces of which have been preserved on pieces of clay. Traces of the wooden stakes being driven into the ground have also been saved. The houses were built next to each other. Various tools were found on the floors that were used in the household activities of the residents. Among them were clay flywheels (for spinning and spinning the thread), textile weights for the loom, stone, bone or metal tools, chisels, chisels, chisels, picks.
The volume of vessels collected from the floors of the houses was large and the surprising thing is that several of them are intact. Archaeologists have identified vessels used for eating, drinking, cooking and storing agricultural products. The category of fine glossy black or brown vessels stands out, while the dominant shape is that of the amphora with raised handles. Small jugs and bowl-shaped vessels were also found. The category of storage vessels is of interest. These are jars with rope-like decoration. Inside them were found charred seeds of single grain wheat and acorns in large quantities.
The same fruits were discovered in special pits in the floor of the houses where they were stored.
Also, inside the houses, an impressively large number of clay structures, such as low hearths and platforms, have been found, which were used for cooking and heating the houses. The most common type of these structures seems to be a small oven with an ellipsoidal shape, a domed roof and a small side opening. Some houses had more ovens and in three cases a small child was buried in a pithos (inking), a practice that was common during the Neolithic period. A few figurines and jewelry were also found in the houses
The latest phase, found at the top of the mound, is characterized by buildings with stone foundations, most of which are damaged, except for one that is preserved in good condition. It is a rectangular building with dimensions of 4 x 3 m., whose foundations are preserved at a height of 46 cm.
Coarse monochrome pottery, jugs with rope decoration and engraved vessels with geometric motifs in various arrangements, horizontal and vertical lines, oblique crossed triangles, spirals, etc. which are sometimes highlighted with white paste, are the characteristic ceramics of the latest phase of the Archontikos settlement.
Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou