Remains of habitation from the Neolithic to the Mycenaean era (4th - 2nd millennium BC) were found in the acropolis and the market of the ancient city. The location of the protohistoric Eretria (1100 - 750/700 BC) has been sought in the wider area of ​​today's Eretria and by some researchers it is identified with Lefkadi. At the end of the 8th c. BC, after their victory in the war against the Chalcidians for the Lilandion Field, the Eretrians settled in the area occupied by the present town. In the Second Colonization (8th - 7th BC) they established many colonies in Lower Italy, Halkidiki and the Black Sea. In 490 BC the city was destroyed by the Persians. In 198 BC it was plundered by the Romans and finally destroyed in 87 BC. during the Mithridatic wars.

The ancient city is located below modern Eretria. In its center is the sanctuary of Daphniforos Apollo, with successive phases of buildings from the end of the 8th to the beginning of the 5th century BC. From the Doric temple of 520 - 490 BC. the foundations and the sculptures that adorned the gables are preserved (Museum of Eretria). South-east of the temple are the remains of a monumental fountain with a colonnade (4th century BC).

In various places parts of the classical wall (4th century BC with repairs in the 3rd century BC) are preserved, which descends from the acropolis and follows the coast. Very close to the western gate a geometric heroon (750 - 680 BC) with aristocratic burials was excavated. Other buildings, such as "houses" with rooms, a rectangular enclosure, and pits with votive offerings, mainly from archaic times (6th century BC), testify that worship and banquets were held here in honor of the dead. Two luxurious private residences (from 400 BC to the 3rd century BC) were found in the same area. Of particular interest is the "house with the mosaics" (4th century BC) on the central artery of the ancient city. Also preserved are the city's theater (5th and 4th centuries BC), the foundations of the Doric temple of Dionysus (4th century BC) and his altar, circular dome (4th - 3rd century BC), perhaps a hall of public banquets in the area of ​​the ancient market, the upper and lower gymnasium (4th century BC), at the foot of the acropolis and in the SE. end of the city respectively. In the central district of the city, ruins of a circular altar (perhaps Herakles), a sanctuary of Isis (4th century BC) and baths were found. The Thesmophorium and the sanctuary of Artemis were excavated on the acropolis. Among the funerary monuments, the Macedonian tombs stand out.

The Archaeological Museum exhibits finds from the excavations in the city and in the cemeteries of Eretria, Lefkadi and Amarynthos.

Editor: Fotini Anastasopoulou