Samos, island of B.A. Aegean, extends east of the Ikarian sea, has an area of 470 sq. km. and approximately 79 miles of coastline development. Among its ancient names are noted: Doryssa, Dryussa, Parthenia, Anthemis, Melamphyllos and Phyllas.
Pelasgi, Cares and Leleges are the first settlers. Herodotus records that Homer visited Samos in the period 1130-1120 BC.
The heyday of Samos is associated with the tyrant Polycrates (532-522 BC) when, above all, the naval power was developed and "...the state of the Poles was enlarged, the first of Greeks and barbarians...".
The expansion of the walls, the Eupalinian Trench, the renovation of the Theater, the construction of the port mentioned by Herodotus as "...earth in the sea...", are historical monuments of the Polycratic era.
The greatest mathematician-philosopher Pythagoras, the astronomer Aristarchus, "...who first suspected that the earth moves around the sun...", the architect Mandrocles, the philosopher Melissos, the masters of bronze and architects Roikos and Theodoros, who built the temple of Hera, adorn the spiritual stronghold of ancient Samos.
Herodotus observes about the temple of Hera that it is "...the greatest temple of all the temples that we have seen..." and the geographer Strabo mentions, "...an ancient sanctuary and a great temple, now, it is a gallery full of andrians of excellent...".
Athens, alarmed by the growing naval trading power of Samos, organized a campaign, overthrew the oligarchy and established the Democratic Polity. The recapture of power by the Oligarchs gave the Athenians the occasion to campaign again, under the leadership of Pericles, to destroy the Samian fleet and subjugate the Samians. The long period of decline had begun.
The centuries of Roman occupation form the low horizons of Samos and the Byzantine era freezes the social and economic life with the only spiritual expression being the religious Christian Orthodoxy.
In the year 1363, the Genoese Justiniani established a state in Chios, and with a treaty of the Byzantine Emperor Ioannis Palaiologos, they also included Samos. After the fall of Constantinople, they achieved recognition of their authority by the Sultan, until, in the year 1479, threatened by the Ottomans, they were forced to retreat to Chios, while the Sami followed them with a mass exodus.
Thus the history of the island was plunged into the "century of silence".
History returns to the island after the granting of broad "privileges" and re-settlement, which was gradually achieved during the last quarter of the 16th century.
The reconstruction of social life was expressed by the formation of a "self-governing" system of "village provosts" and the four "Great Provosts", who handle tax administration and administer civil and criminal justice, based on Byzantine-Roman and customary law.
The strong Ecclesiastical aggregation of parishes, Monasteries and the Bishop was a spiritual unifying element, it ruled on family and inheritance matters and preserved the written word by drawing up all kinds of jurisprudential documents.
The person appointed by the High Gate of Agas or Voivode, participating in the administration of the island with the Grand Provosts, represented the interests of the Ottoman Empire, but his presence did not negate the core of self-governing privileges and did not affect the powers of the Governing Church.
The new ideas of the French Revolution of 1789 and the creation of a merchant class on the island led to the emergence of the "Carmanioli" movement, which from the beginning of the 19th century claimed the overthrow of the Proestes, the fairer distribution of tax burdens, the establishment of annual General Assemblies , the accountability of the lords, the removal of tyrannical Ottoman officials and the liberalization of the penal power.
The period 1805-1812 is a history of bloody social conflicts between the "Carmanioli" and their rivals "Goblins".
Thus, the explosion of the Revolution of 1821 threw the "Carmaniolous" into the foreground, the foremost leaders of which were initiated into the secrets of the Friendly Society. Logothetis Lykourgos is recognized as the general leader of the rebellious Samos, who had studied in Constantinople and had served, as a logothetis, in the Transdanubian Hegemonies, had led the social struggles of 1805-1812, had been sentenced to death by the Gate, had been exiled to Mount Athos and as a spiritual personality, he had been shaped by the ideas of enlightenment and Riga Feraios.
The revolutionaries establish an autonomous state with legislative, executive and judicial power, organize a regular military force, develop a fortified defense system, establish the annual General Assemblies of representatives, dissolve the Goblin "faction", maintain a table of Turko-worshippers", manage with accountability the incomes of the island, they participate with elected proxies in the National Assemblies and in the common burdens of the Homeland, but refuse to accept a Province of the Central Government, they defend the autonomy of the local State with rebellions and bloody conflicts as they at the same time repel the attempts of the Ottoman fleet to occupy the island in the year 1821 and 1824.
When with the protocol of London (February 3, 1830) Samos remained outside the borders of the new Greek State, an independent "Samian State" was formed and for four years fought for the union of Powers and the military threats of the Sultan. Finally, in August 1834, the Hegemonic Regime was forcibly imposed, while the Sami revolutionaries by the thousands immigrated to Greece and their leaders were exiled as "Limeons of the Fatherland".
In the year 1849 they rebelled against the Hegemonic Administration, overthrew the Tyrant Ruler Stefanos Vogoridis and demanded the implementation of the Organic Charter.
Thus began a long period of reconstruction of social life. The gradual development of the State is characterized by the strengthening of the institutions of a "constitutional State" with a dominant body in the annual General Assemblies of the proxies with the restoration of the Judiciary, with Municipal administration, with a central budget, with the organization of a satisfactory education system, with the execution of public works, by telegraphic, telephone and coastal response, by passing the Samian Civil Procedure and by proposing the Samian Civil Code.
A ruler with a great work was Alexandros Steph. Caratheodoris, eminent jurist and mathematician who translated Nassiruddin-el Toussy's treatise from Arabic and published it under the title "Traite du quadrilatere attribute a Nassiruddin-el Toussy, traduit par Alexadre Pascha Caratheodory (1891)". It seems that the science of mathematics was the interest that connected him with his relative and great Mathematician Constantinos Steph. Karatheodori.
During the last quarter of the 19th century, material and political progress was followed by cultural flourishing, with the publication of militant newspapers, the circulation of the important historical works of Epaminondas and Nikolaos Stamatiadis, the movement of social urbanism, the translations of ancient texts, the publication of poetry collections , the establishment of Philharmonic Societies, the reception of Greek troupes, etc.
Finally, in the year 1912, with the outbreak of the second Balkan War, Samos declared its union with Greece.
The political and armed National Resistance of 1942-1944 is a top expression of Sami patriotism and liberalism, while the three-year bloody civil war (1946-1949) sealed social processes and ideological conflicts.
Within such a historical climate, the three departments of the Faculty of Applied Sciences of the University of the Aegean were established in Karlovasi and are developing, the flowering of which is a high goal of the local society and the University community.
Source: by the writer Mr. Alexis Sevastakis for the University of the Aegean
Source: Prefectural Government of Samos